Blood Pressure

Free nursing case study example. This paper describes changes in blood pressure are caused by Mr. Joseph's reduction in blood volume.

Today, pathologists have access to the most effective ways of ensuring that patients, especially the aged, are cared for in a special way, so as their recovery can be enhanced. The most common dangers and complications faced by such patients have been assessed. In addition, the benefits of the inclusion of family members into the recovery process, have been established. It is evident older adults are resistant to changes, and it means that the best way to care for them is to align the treatment program to their way of life (Mitchell et al., 2012). Such an approach is possible for Mr. Joseph, who is aged 82 years, and thus, should be allowed to continue taking long walks, consuming juice while walking, and perform stationery rides on cold days, if he is supervised. It is, therefore, crucial to discuss the physiological factors that may contribute to his falling while walking, age-related blood pressure alterations, as well as to address the dehydration concerns. This will help in devising strategies that suggest cooperation with the patient while disseminating concepts regarding their pathological states.

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Physiological Factors for Increased Risks for Falling

Age is a determinant factor in the body functioning, and despite an individual being healthy, just like Mr. Joseph, he is prone to fall due to changes in his body. Such conditions as orthostatic hypotension can increase the risks of falling because it is associated with a reduction in diastolic blood pressure. This complication usually results from the supine standing position for a few minutes and may be accompanied by dizziness (Plaksin, 2014). Visual impairment is the other risk factor because vision acuity worsens with age. It can impair judgment, lowers the ability to perceive colors, leads to narrowing of visual fields, as well as cause reduction in contrast. These defects in vision, which an elderly person like Joseph, can seriously increase the risks for falls. The other factor, which could contribute, include musculoskeletal disorders, because bone fragility, low cartilage resilience, reduced muscular strength, and low ligament elasticity progress with age (Plaksin, 2014). All these factors could contribute to falling during JosephВ’s long walks outside, and the best strategy to resolve this issue is to cooperate with him for the development of means for resolution of the problem (Mitchell et al., 2012). In this case, it will be the responsibility of everyone to ensure Mr. Joseph’s safety, since it is the common aim of the cooperation. Thus, the specialist will educate the family members on the importance of e accompanying Mr. Joseph, while he is walking, so that he can have effective support in case of any emergency. The old man will be willing to cooperate with his family members, who are making him a company, and thus, such an approach will make him feel safe.

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Changes in Blood Pressure Regulation and Their Management

Blood pressure control is important to every individual and alteration in this process may lead to premature death. At the same time, the efficiency of blood pressure regulation in elderly persons is low. For instance, the heart controls the heartbeat with the help of pacemakers, which may be affected by fat deposits and developed fibrous tissues, both factors related to age. This makes the blood flow very inefficient. It is also common for the heart to be covered by pigments of aging, which are the regions of heart cell degeneration and stiffness of the cardiac walls, which leads to failure of the heart to control the blood flow (Pasma et al., 2014). Baroreceptors in blood vessels are useful in controlling blood pressure, as they enable the body to maintain a constant flow of blood, but their functionality deteriorates with aging. This may lead to orthostatic hypotension, which is experienced as the feeling of dizziness, when one changes position, from sitting to standing mainly, as a result of the low circulation of blood in the brain.

Moreover, the blood itself changes with age, as the water content of the body reduces. It lowers the volume of blood, thus making the functioning of the heart valves ineffective (Pasma et al., 2014). It means that the main problem is Mr. Joseph has low blood pressure, and hence all the processes, that regulate the flow of blood, are hindered. The best way to manage this problem is to eat healthy food and exercising. The strategy to be used in this case is mutual trust. Since Mr. Joseph exercises both indoors and outdoors, it is important to ensure his honor in this practice (Mitchell et al., 2012). However, this strategy suggests that Mr. Joseph should also introduce some changes, such as taking a warm drink instead of a cold one, because low temperature contributes to a reduction in blood flow.

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Dehydration Concern

It is common for elderly persons to experience dehydration without its realization. Due to defects in brain centers functioning, which occur with age, older persons can hardly realize thirst and dehydration conditions, and it can lead to serious complications. The point of concern is less efficient kidney functioning that results from low body fluid. Being 82 years old, Mr. Joseph still takes long walks and it could lead to a significant sweating rate, which may lead to dehydration. Even though he stops for a cold glass of fruit juice, it is not an alternative to water intake. Besides, fruit juice contains potassium, which stimulates water loss by the body. Thus, Mr. Joseph should be recommended to drink plenty of water and, if needed, carry a bottle of water while taking his long walks. In this way, he will improve the fluid levels in the body and help the kidneys function properly (El-Sharkawy, Sahota, Maughan & Lobo, 2014). Since the ability of the kidneys to remove toxins from the body has already declined with age, the organ will be unable to concentrate urine efficiently, and thus, the elderly will lose more water. It is, therefore, necessary to ensure higher water intake at all times, especially while taking long walks. The strategy to be used in ensuring higher water intake is measuring and monitoring. In this case, a positive outcome is expected by both the patient and the family.


Therefore, age determines how the body functions, and thus, elderly individuals, like Mr. Joseph, may experience a number of issues. Physiological changes, such as visual impairment, orthostatic and musculoskeletal disorders, are the factors that make elderly persons prone to fall and should be controlled for the promotion of health. Changes in blood pressure are caused by a reduction in blood volume and it is thus, important to encourage Mr. Joseph to continue his long walks to improve the blood pressure and thus, enhance blood circulation. Dehydration is also a concern for the elderly since low water intake is associated with reduced functionality of the kidney, making them unable to remove toxins from the body. Among the strategies to be used are a shared goal, measurable process, and outcome, as well as mutual trust.

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