Requiring Vaccinations in Children

If you aren't good at research paper writing and haven't advanced writing skills, you will definitely need to read our free sample!

Abstract

The given research paper represents the self-sufficient research containing a profound analysis of the vaccination of children. The purpose of this research paper is to give a comprehensive discussion of the problem of vaccination of children. The research paper has a definite structure, which is indicated in the table of content. The paper covers deep data analysis, and the key points of the research are represented in the structural analysis of the found information about the vaccination of children.

Get a price quote
$12.99 00.00 1st order only

Table of Contents

I. Introduction

a. What are vaccines/history?

b. When are they used?

c. Why are they used?

d. Examples (Influenza, MMR, etc)

II. Importance of Immunizations in public health

a. Disease eradication

b. Decrease in morbidity/mortality

c. Polio

d. Preventing epidemics (influenza)

III. Controversy

a. Concern for Autism correlation

b. Concern for preservatives

IV. Review of Literature

a. Cases in the United States

b. Current events debates/news stories

c. Areas of research

V. Current Legislation in the United States

a. Federal

b. State

c. Local

VI. Discussion / Recommendations

a. Should parents be allowed to decide against vaccinations?

b. Should there be stricter requirements?

c. Where should research start from here?

VII. Future Implications

a. Outcomes if requirements/laws stay the same

b. Outcomes if requirements/laws become less strict

c. Outcomes if requirements/laws become more strict

VIII. Conclusion

IX. References

Requiring Vaccination for Children: A Comprehensive Discussion

I. Introduction

a. What are vaccines/history?

The vaccination of children is one of the subjects which divide the world society. It is proved that the organism of a newborn is not ready to meet the infections. However, there are numerous fatal cases and invalidization of children, which force their parents to doubt the need of this procedure. Immunologists call for vaccination, after all, if there is not an immunological layer, it can serve as the outbreak of diseases. The opponents of vaccination call it money laundering through the state budget, and the WHO – the pharmaceutical lobbyist.

According to Link K. (2005), it is known that a large number of people in ancient times perished not because of wars or hunger, but as a result of the most terrifying epidemics. For example, smallpox is considered to be the main cause of the death of the Maya civilization. It happened because there was a sick sailor on board the Spanish vessel which arrived on the American coast in 1521. Smallpox carried away 3.5 million lives of the indigenous people of America in the following several years.

The turning point in the history of vaccination is connected with the name of an English doctor E. Jenner (1749-1823). He noticed that peasants, who periodically caught cow smallpox, never fell ill with the human smallpox. Jenner assumed that the suffered cow smallpox is the protection from the human smallpox and he conducted a revolutionary experiment: he inoculated an eight-year boy with the liquid from the vials on a hand of the milkmaid. All subsequent attempts to infect the boy with the human smallpox were unsuccessful. Thus, vaccination appeared. (Fulford, 2000).

b. When are they used?

Vaccination is the single most cost-effective health intervention known to modern science and public policy. Effective use of vaccines results in low childhood mortality, freedom from epidemics of devastating diseases, and protection against widespread illnesses such as influenza and pneumonia. These facts are viewed as axiotomatic by the medical and public health communities (Russel, 1999).

At birth, the majority of children possess congenital passive immunity. If a child is on breast feeding, his/her immunity becomes even stronger at the expense of the antibodies containing in the breast milk. An artificial immunity or vaccination is one of many ways of a child’s protection. Only one injection is capable to protect a child from diseases that were considered to be the most terrible diseases of mankind several decades ago.

c. Why are they used?

It is considered that vaccines protect children from potentially dangerous diseases at the very beginning of their lives. This is their main mission.

The natural protection of an organism against infectious diseases is called immunity. When the causative agent of this or that infection gets to an organism, the immune system starts to develop antibodies that resist this infection.

Vaccines allow developing an immune response to diseases, without having had this or that disease. Vaccines represent the solution, containing the causative agents of diseases in extremely low concentrations. They are entered usually by means of an injection. Vaccines do not cause disease; nevertheless, the antibodies are developed in an organism and immunity is formed.

The vaccination of children was considered the main way of preventing undesirable infections in newborns. The medicine goes ahead; thus, the vaccines, which are successfully applied practically around the world, are constantly updated and improved. It allows lowering the level of development of those infections, which threaten the activity of a person, first of all, of a child.

d. Examples (Influenza, MMR, etc)

A vaccine for flu prevention is a biological preparation, providing the formation of a short-term immunity to the flu virus; it is considered one of the best flu prevention methods. The vaccination and applications of medicines against influenza virus have to protect the human body from the flu virus. (Moshe, 1998).

The vaccination for MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) is rather effective and used all over the world.

These diseases spread from person to person through the air. You can easily catch them by being around someone who is already infected. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine can protect children (and adults) from all three of these diseases (Vaccine Information Statement, 2012).

Want an expert write a paper for you?
Talk to an operator now!

II. Importance of Immunizations in public health

a. Disease eradication

The WHO plans to eradicate 10 infectious diseases by 2020. The world health care organizations, pharmaceutical companies, governments and private sponsors concluded an unprecedented partnership agreement for the achievement of the put goal.

There are the following diseases that are planned to be eradicated owning to vaccination: sleepy illness (African trypanosomiasis), visceral leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, transferred through the soil of helminthiasis (helminthic invasions), Chagas illness (American trypanosomiasis), trachoma, leprosy, fascioliasis and river blindness (onchocerciasis). According to the WHO, all these diseases affect more than a billion inhabitants and yield multi-billion losses because of disability.

b. Decrease in morbidity/mortality

The efficiency of vaccination of school children against flu has been proved recently. During the period from 1962 to 1987, there was a decrease in superfluous deaths (being observed in the seasonal flu epidemics), which was replaced after 1987 by its increase, and since 1994 a sharp increase was noted. Such dynamics of the superfluous deaths can be possibly caused by the fact that at mass vaccination of school children the intensity of distribution of the flu virus among senior people decreases at the expense of the formation of population immunity.

c. Polio

Poliomyelitis is a potentially dangerous virus disease. The scientists invented two vaccines against it: inactivated and alive vaccines, which are cultured in monkey kidney tissue. Since the 1950s, these vaccines have been injected to millions of people in the United States and worldwide. Officially polio vaccination is considered to be safe and effective. However, the statistics does not confirm these statements.

d. Preventing epidemics (influenza)

Influenza (flu) is a serious virus illness, which affects men, women and children of any age and any nationality. Children are more often affected by this illness. Flu is one of the most epidemic illnesses, which require vaccination. Flu periodically flashes in the form of epidemics and even pandemics worldwide. The scientists feverishly look for ways of protection against flu; there are new vaccines against certain strains of flu.

There are several types of vaccination against flu:

The alive flu vaccine is produced from the weakened strain of flu virus of A and B groups. It is grown in chicken embryos. These vaccines can be used for children who are 3 years old or older.

Inactive vaccine is the virus of types A and B, received from the virus-containing liquid, growing in chicken embryos. An inactivated vaccine forms general and local types of immunity, which provide a reliable illness protection. It is widely used for children, who are 3 years old or older.

Split-vaccine has superficial and internal antigen of the flu virus. According to the majority of researches, it can be applied in any age, starting from 6 months.

Subunit vaccine is prepared from the superficial proteins. It is usually applied to adults.

You can buy a research paper from us and forget about your academic failures!

III. Controversy

a. Concern for Autism correlation

According to the scientists-virologists, the question of the interconnection of vaccination and autism is lawful.

At present more than 500 000 children suffer from autism, and every year pediatricians diagnose more than 40 000 new cases. This disease was not known until 1943 when it was identified for the first time and diagnosed among 11 children who were born in the months after thimerosal was first added to children’s vaccines in 1931.

According to Zager (2005), autism is caused by an increased concentration of mercury in a child’s organism. The research showed the definite interconnection between the vaccines and the level of autism in a definite country, state, or a targeted group. The level of autism falls tens times within several years in those countries which cease to use vaccines with thimerosal at least for children under three because it is the age when poisoning with heavy metals can lead to autism development. All this researches and information on the danger of vaccines does not reach ordinary people only because the pharmaceutical companies make enormous efforts for it. They earn money on vaccines.

b. Concern for preservatives

Vaccines protect people from diseases, but they are also a good means for struggle with cancer of the uterus. At present the medicine has an opportunity to prevent this disease: doctors recommend taking such measures as vaccination for cancer of the uterus, using human papillomavirus. The optimal age for vaccination is from 9 years old till puberty. Adult women under 26 can also undergo the preventive measures in the form of vaccination. The restrictions by age are caused by the fact that vaccine acts most effectively on those, who did not receive any type of human papilloma. The results of the researches showed that the vaccine gives an absolute effect concerning four types of human papillomavirus, including genital warts and pre-cancer diseases of the uterus, vagina and vulva, and also condyloma.

IV. Review of Literature

a. Cases in the United States

There a lot of cases, testifying to an increase of the mortality rates after mass vaccination. For example, in 1902 when the biggest part of the US population was vaccinated, the mortality from smallpox reached 2121 cases. By 1910 the catastrophic consequences of vaccination led to the fall of trust in it. Thus, mortality fell up to 202 cases. The producers of vaccines used the madness of World War I and started the national vaccinating campaign which led to the mortality increase to 358 (1919) and 642 (1921) cases respectively. When people started to note that the vaccinated people suffer more severe from flu and smallpox (a vaccination consequence), they began to lose trust in it. By 1927 mortality rate fell up to 138 cases. Despite these awful facts, the followers of the idea still consider that vaccination of children has a good impact on their health.

b. Current events – debates/news stories

The current approach to the vaccines indicates that the most important measures for the correct vaccination include: adaptation of the schedule of vaccination to the features of the immune system of a child; vaccination in compliance with a vaccination calendar of a definite country; individual preparation for vaccination, in case of need, full information, and control of the course of the post-vaccine reactions.

c. Areas of research

The search for the new vaccines includes the understanding of their biological bases and clinical development, testing of vaccines and also permission for the vaccine production and sale.

Place your first order and get
15% off discount!

V. Current Legislation in the United States

a. Federal

There is a law about the harm of vaccination for children, which was adopted in 1986. In 1989 the Tribunal honored about 2500 suits; the total compensation sum was about two billion dollars.

Besides, the law of 1986 gives the right to the Products and Medicines Department, National Vaccine Program Department, to issue the epidemiological conclusions about preparations for vaccine usage. In this regard the US Supreme Court decided that only indicated supervisory authorities can take the decision about the potential danger of preparations and their withdrawal.

b. State

In 1986 there was the law related to compensation to those who suffered from vaccines; it was adopted by US Congress. In 1988 the first program aimed at the compensation to people who suffered from vaccines was launched in the USA. Each state in the USA gives the opportunity to refuse vaccination.

Thirteen reporting states did not meet the 95 percent vaccination coverage target for one or more vaccines, but many of those lagged only slightly below the Healthy People 2010 objective. For example, Georgias vaccination rate of kindergarten-aged children was 93.7 percent for all recommended vaccines (Donya, 2007, p. 7).

c. Local

There are a lot of laws and norms concerning vaccination at the local level. If a child in the USA receives a full set of the recommended vaccinations, he/she will be made 36 injections with 113 pathogenic agents, 59 chemicals, 4 types of animal cells/DNA, from the human DNA of the tissues of aborted fetuses and human albumin.

VI. Discussion/Recommendations

a. Should parents be allowed to decide against vaccines?

Any medication, including vaccination, can have side effects. Parents have the right to refuse vaccination for their children. Any child has no obligation to be vaccinated for attending school. Each doctor should accept any parents` decision and respect it.

b. Should there be stricter requirements?

There should be stricter requirements for vaccination. It is necessary to be sure that a child is vaccinated in correct terms. Usually, only absolutely healthy children are vaccinated according to the schedule; thus, the question about the terms of vaccination is solved in an individual way by a pediatrician. It is extremely important to make all necessary tests before the first vaccination and to study the results in details. Moreover, it is necessary to take the possible allergic reactions of a child into consideration.

c. Where should research start from here?

The researches about vaccines, their advantages and complications should start from the disinterested scientific institutions and organizations. Objectivism should be the priority in the choice of vaccination sources.

VII. Future Implications

a. Outcomes if requirements/laws stay the same

There are a lot of special laws in the USA concerning the problem of vaccination, right for refuse and struggle with the possible consequences of vaccination. If the laws remain the same, the quantity of children who became invalid due to the vaccination can increase in the nearest future.

b. Outcomes if requirements/laws become less strict

If laws become less strict, it can affect the whole population of the country. It can lead to awful complications, having even the epidemics with lethal outcomes. The most important thing is to control the situation and not to liberalize the legislative base concerning this important question of the children health.

c. Outcomes if requirements/laws become more strict

The laws should become stricter, because only this fact can decrease the mortality rates, caused by vaccinations and increase the level of responsibility of the companies-producers of the vaccines. Moreover, in order to make the laws stricter, it is necessary to review the existing ones and to contrast them with the existing results of the given laws.

VIII. Conclusion

Having studied literature on this subject, I would like to draw a conclusion that vaccination is one of the best means to protect children against the infectious diseases, which caused serious problems before inoculations were available. The unreasonable criticism of vaccination in mass media was caused by the journalists` aspiration to inflate a sensation from separate cases of post-vaccine complications. Of course, there are a lot of side effects of all medicines, including vaccines. However, the risk to receive complication from injections is much more insignificant than the risk from the consequences of an infectious disease for not vaccinated children.

How Essays Panda Works

It is extremely easy to understand how to place an order at Essays-Panda.com. Read the instructions and see how it works smoothly with no hitch. You will find no difficulty as it is a challenge-free and well-designed process. You can simply enjoy the procedure with us.

1. Order paper
You order custom writing service
2. Research
We provide profound research
3. Writing process
Professional writers develop your paper
4. Check
We check the paper for plagiarism
5. Upload work
We send the paper to e-mail or upload into your site account