Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

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Research Question

What is the relevance of the modern analysis of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and the recent historical development?

The study objectives

To evaluate the relevance of Darwin’s theory of evolution in the modern world that has advanced in the use of technology.

To analyze critically the available literature studying Darwin’s Evolution theory.

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Overview

This research paper will form the basis for the literature review towards the development of the research proposal for this course.

Background

Human beings are curious about nature. They constantly seek to find answers to questions pertaining to their existence, evolution, and why things are the way they are in the world today. It is this characteristic that drove many scientists towards the quest in discovering the origins of human beings. Evolution theories have been defined as those that seek to examine and provide fulfilling answers in regard to the beginning of life and transformations that have taken place so far, resulting in the upright beings that we are today. Ashoke Mukhopadhyay (2009) established that the evolution theory includes,

A whole range of individual organisms normally categorized into species, genus, family and kingdom. It postulates the emergence of complex living organisms from non-living matter by way of a much smaller number of less complex ancestors. It claims that all life on earth can be traced back to one primitive organism, developing spontaneously and by chance, probably from a primordial soup of electrified chemicals.

Among those who strived to explain the origins of man was Charles Darwin, a popular scientist of the 18th century. Even though the evolution theories were already in existence before his birth, it is Darwin who researched and perfected the findings that were later adapted by other world scientists and used as facts in human evolution studies. Several academic works have since been written on Charles Darwin’s findings on the evolution theory. The section below provides an analysis done by various scholars on his work.

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Darwins Theory of Evolution Literature Review

It is evident that the universe, including all living things on earth, has undergone the process of evolution. Charles Darwins Evolution Theory is one of the theories regarding the process of evolution of life on earth. Most educated people consider this theory as highly self-evident even though extensive scrutiny reveals in-depth scientific empirical support. This is a scenario where the truth has not been allowed to get in the way of good stories. The following sections provide a brief outline of the manifesting shortcomings of the theory of evolution of Charles Darwin. This article aims at promoting discussions and thoughts about Darwin’s theory of evolution.

Two other researchers, Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon from the Ankerberg Theological Research Institute came out strongly to question the relevance of discussing Darwin’s Theory of evolution in the modern-day, especially after it was adapted by the worlds population. They hold that it is still critical to analyze the evolution theory as especially the two facets that deal with mutations that are beneficial and the natural selection process.

Did the universe evolve, or did God create it in seven days? Human beings have been unable to prove the appearance of the human race, and they have only provided various academic hypotheses. Darwin concluded that an organism exposes to evolution when is placed in gradually dynamic surroundings. It is such exposure that makes some creatures survive in the most suitable way than their counterparts.

The evolution theory advanced by Darwin provides a description that involves microorganisms that eventually went through an evolution from apes, and through natural selection, and became humans. Different religions have presented the evolution of the universe through the intrusion of supreme forces, like Bible describes God’s creation of the universe in seven days. It shows us Eve and Adam as the first human species on the earth. Religion and science have conflicted because science has developed concepts that contrast religious concepts (Richards 1987).

Due to previous science that involves religion, scientists have intertwined several hypotheses of religion and science. Therefore, philosophers insisted that man was entirely created by God. Charles Darwin proposed evolution as a process of natural selection, which leads to reduced moral philosophy materials. The evolution theory, advanced by Charles Darwin, constitutes survival only for those who can fit or those who can adapt to survival over those who have failed to adapt to the surrounding environment. According to Darwin, non-organic matter produced organic matter via evolution.

Original lives underwent a natural selection process that involves random mutations, thus, leads to complex forms of lives. The primary argument is that matter cats on the matter within a period to become anything either non-organic or organic. Organic forms of life might have sprung from a single organism in the process of macro-evolution. Complex forms of life might have evolved through random processes of mutations caused by the surrounding environment. New forms of species might have been formed by the natural environment, which acts on the matter within a specified period. Based on the records of fossils, sufficient evidence has not been availed about the evolution of species from random mutations to form adapted organisms.

Darwin’s theory of natural selection explains how a one-cell molecule produced species. Over a period of millions of years, species evolved and became complex organisms because of survival and adaptation. Those organisms who had highly adapted to the surrounding environment, survived throughout the years because they were positive in adapting to the dynamic of the surrounding environment. Some species were successful in adapting to moderate environments while others adapted to the harsh environments (Nardo 2007).

Species evolved for years and become perfect organisms. As species adapted to the environment, the process of natural selection provides evidence that complex species developed from simple celled organisms. Darwin came to this philosophical conclusion through observation. He claims that species developed from macro-evolution. Thus, through evolution and the natural selection process, current complex organisms were created. Due to the observational status of Charles Darwin’s research, a lack of evidence and non-religious perceptions, the evolution theory through natural selection has received an array of criticisms.

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Darwin’s evolution theory is based on observations, thus, lacks evidence regarding the conclusion of this theory. Because natural selection has gone against religion, Christianity has criticized Darwin’s scientific theory of evolution. Darwin’s revolutionary theory is battling issues pertaining to the lack of evidence. Mutations based assumptions have been regarded as an educated hypothesis; however, records of fossils revealed that mutations have developed over thousands of years. Philosophical texts have greatly discouraged observational theories. It is still the question of how the earth was created n and how could Darwin conclude that non-organic matter created organic matter. Darwin has failed to provide evidence about how simple species grew and developed into complex species. A simple species may not be able to become a complex organism; thus, it will remain a simple species.

Our surrounding environment keeps on changing every hour and every organism should be in a position to adapt to any changes. In the development of the first species, the power of the brain enabled a development as a species that thinks and has a tactic of survival (Andrulis 2012). A developing species will require an environment that is constant for a good number of years. As weather changes gradually, they are able to adapt smoothly and survive in such an environment as compared to environmental change that is rapid. Records of fossils provide adequate proof that adaptive change once existed. Evolution theory has not enough exhibitions to make it a fact. Records of fossils depict specimens that are complete instead of showing changes that have been gradually occurring over a period.

Evolution theory is one which seeks to explain the origin of man and gives information that is valid on how the world could have come into being. Due to the presence of religion, the world might trace its origin to a supreme being; let us say God. If God did not create the world in seven days, He definitely created an environment, which acted as a base for the evolution of organisms. We were able to develop through learning and reasoning because God instilled the power of reasoning in us (Best 2006). Darwin’s theory, to some extent, made sense, but it misses a very critical aspect – religion. He never fitted religion anywhere in his theory. The theory of Darwin may be termed as wrong because its hypothesis has been reconstructed intertwining science and religion.

The creation of the universe has had a number of theories behind it. Of the early philosophers, Darwin’s theory of natural selection has been the most popular so far, making its validity top the list. What denied Darwin’s theory to be a fact is the lack of enough evidence to support it; thereby, making it a mere assumption. Many philosophical scientists agreed with Darwin’s theory simply because it was very much observational. Religion, which is a major part and influence on society, had a very great effect on scientist’s and philosopher’s hypotheses. This did not affect Darwin as he went on promoting his evolution theory against all odds.

The records of fossils do not exactly show the process of how organisms gradually and steadily evolved for over a billion years. Fossils downgrade natural selections validity. An adaptive mechanism in organisms may be for the purpose of survival only. The religious aspect usually has an impact on everyone in the world (Cantor & Sweltz 2006). The contradicting factor about science and religion is the creation of the Earth by God from a molecule. The status of religion in the world will always deny Darwin’s theory to be accepted even though the natural selection theory in terms of education is the highest in our time.

Darwin never measured up to the special component included in natural selection. Loopholes noted in his theory indicated that Darwin was out in downplaying the differences between man/human beings and other existing animals. This process was applied only to humans, thus caused challenges in his theory (Darwin, Glick & Kohn 2010). They came to the realization that animals and plants are made up of individuals who vary from each other in physical forms. It also came to their knowledge that nature chooses from the varieties of the existing traits which fit best the environment. If the only process that was occurring was natural selection, then, at some point, we would have been identical, and each generation should have had a lesser variation (Larson & Brauer 2009). However, Darwin’s discovery was met with an equal measure of opposition from other scholars. Adam Sedgwick, a Cambridge professor of Geology, refuted Darwin’s finding, claiming that his geological records were not only incomplete but that in the environment, domestic fusion is not of similar species. He also retaliated that Darwin’s choice of words in his discoveries indicated subjectivity, his theory was materialistic, lacked proper induction, and dismisses final causes (Hull 2009).

Another biologist Richard Owen opposed Darwin’s theory by saying that natural selection is an evolutionary idea that blurred the perception of species as important and crucial entities. In unison, scientific researchers agreed that despite Darwin’s massive success in defining and making known the evolution theory, his theory is short of providing sufficient explanations to two major questions including; how variation occurs in living organisms and its transmission through the off springs generation.

Darwin also failed to provide an approximate time that will be needed for evolution to take place on earth. These two shortcomings were linked to his insufficient knowledge of hereditary mechanisms that were perceived as crucial.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Darwin’s theory of evolution may have sparked criticisms and praise in equal measures but still remains relevant to our modern context. Peter, J. Richerson and Robert Boyd (2010) advise that The discussions on the application and implications of Darwinism can only be characterized as ‘Evo-babble’. Darwin is being accredited to the agricultural sector transformation as his works focused on probable modern genetics. Scientific researchers have massively sited the importance of genetics in our current life. Especially physicians have to date value Darwins evolution theory in regards to tracing the background of the mediation processes in the medical industry.

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